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你对园林假山了解多少?

来源:http://www.mbqmd.com/content-21-225-1.html  更新时间:2019-05-21
  园林假山是由人工构筑的仿自然山形,用石头和土石砌成,是一种仿造的野外自然环境的人工造景。假山可以作为庭院园林假山内的重要观赏品,大型的甚至能作为可憩可游可登攀的园林景观设施。而石景,则是不具备山形但以奇特的怪石形状为审美特征的石质观赏景。石景与假山一样,都是园林中的重要景物形式。在本文中,我们将介绍假山与石景的类型及造景作用、石景的布置技巧、假山的平面设计和结构设计等技术知识与技艺方法。
  Landscape rockery is a kind of artificial landscaping of imitative natural environment in the field, which is made of stone and earth and stone. Rockery can be used as an important ornamental in garden rockery, and large-scale can even be used as recreational, recreational and climbable landscape facilities. Stone scenery, on the other hand, is a kind of stone ornamental scenery which does not have the shape of mountains but has the aesthetic characteristics of peculiar stone shape. Stone scenery, like rockery, is an important form of landscape in gardens. In this paper, we will introduce the types and functions of rockery and stone scenery, the layout skills of rockery, the plane design and structural design of rockery, and other technical knowledge and techniques.
  假山与石景的类型
  Types of Rockery and Stone Scenery
  依据不同的标准,可以将假山和石景分出许多不同的类型。但类型的划分如果太多,反而会模糊我们对假山石景的认识。因此,下面先分假山和石景两大类,然后再区分两大类中的一些小类。
  According to different standards, rockery and stone scenery can be divided into many different types. But if there are too many types, it will blur our understanding of rockery landscape. Therefore, the following is divided into two categories: rockery and stone scenery, and then into two sub-categories.
  济南假山制作
  假山的类型
  Types of rockery
  假山的类型划分历来有很多不同的方式,这里只就最常用的堆山材料和景观特征两个划分依据来介绍其类别。
  There are always many different ways to classify rockery types. Here, the classification of rockery is introduced based on the most commonly used materials and landscape characteristics.
  (1)、从堆山主要材料分:有土山、带石土山、带土石山和石山等四类,各类基本情况如下。
  (1) According to the main materials of heaping hills, there are four types: earth hill, stone hill, earth hill and stone hill. The basic information of each type is as follows.
                      济南假山制作
  土山:是以泥土作为基本堆山材料,在陡坎、陡坡处可有块石作护坡、挡土墙或作磴道,但不用自然山石在山上造景。这种类型的假山占地面积往往很大,是构成园林基本地形和基本景观背景的重要构造因素。
  Earth Hill: The earth is used as the basic material for hill piling. There may be a stone for slope protection, retaining wall or runway at steep and steep slopes, but natural rocks are not used for mountain landscaping. This type of rockery often covers a large area and is an important structural factor that constitutes the basic landform and landscape background of the garden.
  带石土山:主要堆山材料是泥土;是在土山的山坡、山脚点缀有岩石,在陡坎或山顶部分用自然山石堆砌成悬崖绝壁景观,一般还有山石做成的梯级磴道。带石土山可以做得比较高,但其用地面积却能够比较少,多用在较大的庭园中。
  Rocky earth mountain: The main material for hill piling is soil; there are rocks on the slopes and foothills of the earth mountain, cliff cliff cliff landscape built with natural rocks on steep slopes or hilltop, and stepped ramps made of rocks in general. Rocky soil mountain can be made higher, but its land area can be relatively small, mostly used in larger gardens.
  带土石山:山体从外观看主要是由自然山石造成的,山石多用在山体的表面,由石山墙体围成假山的基本形状,墙后则用泥土填实。这种土石结合而露石不露土的假山,占地面积较小,但山的特征最为突出,适于营造奇峰、悬崖、深峡、丛山峻岭等多种山地景观。
  Rocky Mountain with Soil: The mountain body is mainly caused by natural rocks from the appearance. Rocks are mostly used on the surface of the mountain body. Rocky mountain walls form the basic shape of the rockery, and behind the walls are filled with earth. This kind of rockery, which combines earth and rock but does not expose rock, covers a small area, but the characteristics of the mountain are most prominent. It is suitable for creating many mountain landscapes, such as strange peaks, cliffs, deep gorges, mountains and so on.
  石山:其堆山材料主要是自然山石,只在石间空隙处填土配植植物。石山造价较高,堆山规模若是比较大,则工程费用十分可观。因此,这种假山一般规模都比较小,主要用在庭院、水池等空间比较闭合的环境中,或者作为瀑布、滴泉的山体应用。
  Shishan: The main material for hill-filling is natural rocks, which only fill the space between rocks to plant plants. Shishan has a high cost. If the scale of the heap is relatively large, the cost of the project will be considerable. Therefore, this kind of rockery is generally small in scale, mainly used in courtyards, pools and other relatively closed space environment, or as waterfalls, dripping springs of mountain applications.
  (2)、从景观特征来分:采用这种方式可将假山分为仿真型、写意型、透漏型、实用型、盆景型等五类园林假山是由人工构筑的仿自然山形,用石头和土石砌成,是一种仿造的野外自然环境的人工造景。假山可以作为庭院园林假山内的重要观赏品,大型的甚至能作为可憩可游可登攀的园林景观设施。而石景,则是不具备山形但以奇特的怪石形状为审美特征的石质观赏景。石景与假山一样,都是园林中的重要景物形式。在本文中,我们将介绍假山与石景的类型及造景作用、石景的布置技巧、假山的平面设计和结构设计等技术知识与技艺方法。
  (2) According to the landscape characteristics, the rockery can be divided into five types: simulation type, freehand style type, leakage type, practical type and bonsai type. The rockery is a kind of artificial landscaping of the natural environment in the field, which is made of stone and earth and stone. Rockery can be used as an important ornamental in garden rockery, and large-scale can even be used as recreational, recreational and climbable landscape facilities. Stone scenery, on the other hand, is a kind of stone ornamental scenery which does not have the shape of mountains but has the aesthetic characteristics of peculiar stone shape. Stone scenery, like rockery, is an important form of landscape in gardens. In this paper, we will introduce the types and functions of rockery and stone scenery, the layout skills of rockery, the plane design and structural design of rockery, and other technical knowledge and techniques.
 
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